Overview[ edit ] Bust of Periclesmarble Roman copy after a Greek original from c. These strategoi were given duties which included planning military expeditions, receiving envoys of other states and directing diplomatic affairs. During the time of the ascendancy of Ephialtes as leader of the democratic faction, Pericles was his deputy. When Ephialtes was assassinated for overthrowing the elitist Council of the Aeropagus, Pericles stepped in and was elected in BCE, a post he held continuously until his death in BC, always by election of the Athenian Assembly.
History of Greece The Golden Age of Greece The Classical Period or Golden Age of Greece, from around to BC, has given us the great monuments, art, philosophy, architecture and literature which are the building blocks of our own civilization. The two most well known city-states during this period were the rivals: It was the strengths of these two societies that brought the ancient world to its heights in art, culture and with the defeat of the Persians, warfare.
It was the same two Greek states whose thirst for more power and territory, and whose jealousy brought about the Peloponnesian wars which lasted 30 years and left both Athens and Sparta mere shadows of their former selves.
These Spartans, known as the Lacedemonians controlled the Peloponessos. The Spartans had not always lived in such a society. These helots were no more than serfs and worked the land for the Spartans. Men lived in barracks and male children were taken from their mothers at a young age to learn how to serve the state, meaning the art of warfare.
Unhealthy children were killed or left to die. Life had one purpose. To defend the state. Lycurgus traveled to Delphi for guidance. Told by the Oracle that his laws would make Sparta famous, he returned to convince first his influential friends and eventually all the Spartans that his reforms will bring power and glory to Sparta.
Full citizenship was reserved for the elite, known as the Spartiates who spent much of their time training for and fighting in wars, while their helots worked the land to provide food for the communal mess halls known as syssitia.
Those who could not keep up with their commitment were kicked out and became part of the inferior classes. Children served and then listened to the men discuss state affairs and other topics, as part of their education.
Girls were required to exercise and be strong so that they would give birth to strong men. They were also required to dance naked in front of the men to teach them bravery and to be too ashamed to let themselves get fat. The boys learned to read and write but their primary educational goal was to learn to be brave and strong.
Maybe the most frightening of the Spartan institutions were the Crypteia, where young boys were sent to the countryside to live off the land similar to 'Outward Bound' except for a critical difference.
These boys were permitted to kill any helot they ran into. This pretty much kept the helots at home. The Spartans not only feared their own subjugated population but they also feared ideas like democracy for instance entering and polluting their system. Though it is easy to get the impression that the Spartans were a society of militaristic robots this is not the case.
The Spartans were known for their wit and their ability to say a lot without wasting words. Because the helots did all the work the Spartans had plenty of time for leisure and it is a myth that they spent every free moment in training.
They used mercy as a tactic as well.
The Spartans would not pursue and slaughter a retreating enemy, considering such behavior disgraceful and not befitting a true warrior.Athens (/ ˈ æ θ ɪ n z /; Greek: Αθήνα, Athína; Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai [leslutinsduphoenix.com̯]) is the capital and largest city of leslutinsduphoenix.com dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3, years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC.
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Athens’ democratic government implodes, and Sparta destroys their city’s fortifications and the long walls which once protected the road from Athens to Pireaus. At this point, the long conflict comes to a close and with the end of the Peloponnesian War comes the end of Athens’ golden age — but not the end of Athens altogether.
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Pericles (/ ˈ p ɛr ɪ k l iː z /; Greek: Περικλῆς Periklēs, pronounced [leslutinsduphoenix.comɛ̂ːs] in Classical Attic; c. – BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age – specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.
He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically influential.