The expression 'black armband view of history' has been used to describe a brand of Australian history which its critics argue 'represents a swing of the pendulum from a position that had been too favourable, too self congratulatory', to an opposite extreme that is even more unreal and decidedly jaundiced.
Adam Carr s Election Archives, http: Gibson thus received His votes were made up of his original first preferences, plus preferences from excluded candidates.
The Australian Regional Development Conference will be held at Twin Towns Services Club, Tweed Heads, NSW on Monday 17 and Tuesday 18 September This annual conference will provide a platform to network and be part of the conversation on the learnings, solutions and challenges that regional and rural towns experience. parliamentary debate and for related parliamentary purposes. This paper is not professional legal opinion. CONTENTS 5 Australian Institute for Gambling Research, Australian Gambling: Comparative History and Analysis, Project Report, Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority, Melbourne, , p xx. NSW Parliamentary Library Research Service. Parliament Reports Parliament Reports Reports, Studies & Research Papers Library - This topic provides links to reports available on the Parliament of Australia website on .
Therein lies a major difficulty for the minor parties that is a consequence of the use of Preferential Voting for lower house elections. Preferential Voting whether full or Optional gives a disproportionate advantage to the major parties, primarily because of the size of the vote needed to challenge for a seat.
A major factor in this has been the ongoing electoral strength of the Coalition parties and the ALP. Occasionally, a prominent minor party candidate may appear to have a chance of winning a seat, but invariably such candidates fail.
Haines did remarkably well to gain In the election Pauline Hanson MP, of Pauline Hanson s One Nation, gained 36 per cent of first preferences in Blair Qldbut still fell short of victory due to no candidate giving her their second preferences.
If such well-known candidates fail, lesser-known candidates are unlikely to succeed. To be a factor in a House of Representatives contest, a minor party needs to be in the final count, but this is very hard to achieve because minor party candidates have difficulty in gaining even one-quarter of first preferences.
In its heyday the highest Democratic Labor Party individual vote was only The best Green effort to date has been the 23 per cent in the Cunningham by-election, a result aided by the Liberal Party not nominating a candidate.
In a general election the best Australian Greens result has been By contrast, even in the worst post-war effort by the major partiesbetween them they still managed to secure The major parties have thus won No seat has been won by a minor party candidate, despite three reasonably strong minor parties the Democratic Labor Party, the Australian Democrats and the Australian Greens contesting elections.
The exceptions have been the occasional popular local independent, such as Peter Andren, MP for Calare from until Candidates such as Andren can succeed if the major party vote is modest and if they gain the lion s share of second preferences from other candidates.
In fact, in Andren s first victory he won despite gaining only The wrong result A problem with elections conducted in single-member electorates is that occasionally it is possible for a party to receive a majority of first preferences across all electorates yet fail to win government.
A party can have many of its votes locked up in safe seats, while its main opponent s may have votes spread much more evenly across the electoral map. In the Labor Government, with only Eight years later the story was reversed, with Labor s vote margin over the Coalition of almost one per cent being insufficient to propel it into government.
The winner s bonus It might be supposed that a 50 per cent national vote won by a party should return it about half of the parliamentary seats being contested.
In fact, majority systems used in single-member electorates are likely to award a disproportionate number of parliamentary seats to the largest vote-winner the so-called winner s bonus. Infor example, the Coalition gained two-thirds of the seats, yet its first preference vote was less than 50 per cent.
House of Representatives contests quite often illustrate this phenomenon, as can be seen in Table 1.The Treasury is engaged in a range of issues from macroeconomic policy settings to microeconomic reform, climate change to social policy, as well as tax policy and international agreements and forums.
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Upon request, Hansard also provides records of hearings to parliamentary committees, which determine their publication. The Parliament Research Library is part of the Joint Parliamentary Service and provides information and research services to Members of the Legislative Council and the House of Assembly and their staff.
The Australian Democrats is an Australian political party in existence since It was Australia's largest minor party from its formation in through to and frequently held the balance of power in the Senate during that time.
It was formally deregistered in for not having sufficient members. The party was formed as a merger of the Australia Party and the New Liberal Movement. Parliament Reports Parliament Reports Reports, Studies & Research Papers Library - This topic provides links to reports available on the Parliament of Australia website on .
parliamentary debate and for related parliamentary purposes. This paper is not professional legal opinion. CONTENTS 5 Australian Institute for Gambling Research, Australian Gambling: Comparative History and Analysis, Project Report, Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority, Melbourne, , p xx.
NSW Parliamentary Library Research Service.