Not only did the state introduce some significant initiatives in response to the multi-faceted reform movement known as progressivism, it also endured race riots, natural disasters, and severe economic problems. Even as it attempted to modernize its road and school systems, expand its manufacturing sector, and deal with increasing urbanization, most Arkansans continued to live in rural areas and remained largely conservative, both in their attitudes toward traditional social relations, particularly with regard to race, and in their religious orthodoxy. The tension between the need to modernize and the provincialism of rural Arkansas persisted throughout the era and inhibited meaningful change.
Map of the Kingdom of Songhai. It became the largest empire in African history, but its enormous size eventually led to its collapse.
These kingdoms played an important role in the development of trade and economic growth of the region. As old kingdoms came to be replaced by new smaller ones many changes were experienced. The transformations were influenced by conquest and warfare along with patterns of trade.
West African societies were shaped by competition for wealth and the search for independence from more powerful kingdoms. The earliest African civilizations south of the Sahara desert were in West Africa. These civilisations developed at a time when most of Europe was experiencing the Dark Age, after the fall of the Western half of the Roman Empire around A.
Iron farming tools made agricultural methods far more efficient. This led to improvements in agriculture and greater productivity of the land, as prosperity grew the population expanded giving rise to larger towns.
Broad rivers linked people in these larger towns by way of canoe travel. These rivers also maintained the fertility of the soil all year round. At the same time kingdoms were developing in this region. One of the earliest kingdoms to emerge here was ancient Ghana to the far West.
By the year A. D, this kingdom had been ruled by about 40 kings, showing that its political administration was well developed to allow new kings to take office without destroying the kingdom by fighting destructive civil wars. The economy of Ghana was based on iron and gold mining along with agriculture.
Products were traded with Berber societies north of the Sahara desert. At the same time the Mali kingdom of the Mande people, to the east of Ghana, was growing and increasing its control of trade in the region.
This brought the two kingdoms into conflict. Finally, the Ghana kingdom was taken over by the Mali kingdom. The Mali kingdom was able to establish its influence with ease due to the surrounding savannah terrain.
This enabled the easy and speedy dispatch of soldiers across the region to conquer neighbours. The adoption of the Islamic faith by the Mali people in about the s during the rule of Kankan Musa, created a point of unity for this kingdom.
Quarrels over who should succeed the throne and rebellion by the Fulani people in Senegambia and the Songhai people in Gao led to the collapse of the Mali kingdom in the 16th century.
Songhai became independent of Mali, and rivalled it as the leading power in West Africa. They established a state in the 15th century, which unified a large part of the western Sudan and developed into a brilliant civilisation. It was ruled by the dynasty or royal family of Sonni from the thirteenth century to the late fifteenth century.
The capital was at Gao, a city surrounded by a wall. It was a great cosmopolitan market place where kola nuts, gold, ivory, slaves, spices, palm oil and precious woods were traded in exchange for salt, cloth, arms, horses and copper. Islam had been introduced to the royal court of Songhai inbut most people remained faithful to their traditional religion.
Sonni Ali reorganised the army, which was equipped with a fleet on the Niger River. Foot soldiers captured the best men of the defeated armies. An elite cavalry was fast and tough. They wore iron breastplates underneath their battle tunics. The foot soldiers were armed with spears, arrows and leather or copper shields.For the most part, the national government dealt with national defense, foreign policy, and fostering commerce, whereas the states dealt with local matters, economic .
European penetration into western Africa in the late 19th century. From J. Fage, An Atlas of African History; Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd.
Political, economic, and social governments of Australia, France, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and the United States to advise them on economic, social, and health matters.
Early electrification was too limited to have a big impact on the late 19th century economy.
Electricity was also very expensive because of the low conversion efficiency of fuel to power, the small scale of power plants and the fact that most utilities offered only nighttime service.
Early protest was against corruptions such as simony, What had started as a strictly theological and academic debate had now turned into something of a social and political conflict as well, pitting Luther, 19th: 20th: 21st. Addams carved out a new way for women to become influential in public affairs.
rights radicalized him into a fighter for economic and social justice. Greatest Americans of the 20th Century. Share The short guide to Capital in the 21st Century.
that matters is the overall rate of economic growth. marked U-shaped pattern-extremely high in the lateth and early 20th centuries.