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Password for disk image. This is a simple case but enjoyable because you can correlate disk artifacts and memory to build the picture of attacker activity.
I'll write this up as I go so that anyone could follow along note: Ali provided 7 main questions to guide analysis: What type of attacks have been performed on the box?
How many users has the attacker s added to the box, and how were they added? What leftovers files, tools, info, etc did the attacker s leave behind?
Using memory forensics, can you identify the type of shellcode used?
What is the timeline analysis for all events that happened on the box? What is your hypothesis for the case, and what is your approach in solving it? My first step was to get some contextual information on the system. I often use both of these tools to verify against each other.
I also prefer Explorer for less structured analysis, and Case write up 1 for getting all the common answers I need on every case Reg Explorer does this too with Bookmarks, but I like some of the auto-conversions in RegRipper and it's just a tool I'm comfortable with honestly.
Windows Server Standard from Software hive Users: Administrator , user1 , hacker  lol, used RegRipper SAM profile Since this is a pretty obvious practice scenario created for a college course, the instructor gives us easily spotted pivot points. The "Account Created" times for the "user1" and "hacker" accounts are the first critical items we can add to our timeline and pivot from.
It always pays dividends when I take a few minutes to group my analytic questions to answer, write down what artifacts I expect to need to answer each question, and also write down any unknowns that I don't currently have a plan for but need to be answered.
In this case we don't have much context other than: This is a web server. It has been hacked via a web service. The attacker has added some accounts. Other than these clues we have to figure it out ourselves, which puts extra emphasis on vetting out legitimate vs attacker activity.
What types of attacks have been performed on the box? Expected to use web server logs, file system timeline, memory analysis especially if web logs lack parameters which we can potentially fill in with memory. How many users did the attacker add?
To figure out how they were added we'll need to find the actual commands run, this might be in the web logs depending on the vulnerability exploited or in memory. The first necessary step in answering this question is determining the web server software installed.
Finding the version of the web server software running is pretty simple, here are a few ways: It's really focused on ease of use and setup, which often leads to default and insecure configurations being used in production.
We still have the image mounted as E: As with any Apache install, the access. A simple search through the access. DVWA is "Damn Vulnerable Web App" a common teaching tool for basic web application pen-testing fun if you've never worked through it, highly recommended as well as most things on VulnHub.
Essentially it's an insecure web front-end for the ping command. The page doesn't perform any input validation, allowing anyone to end the ping command and run another command. There are many tools that can create a functional filesystem timeline. Here are some options: It doesn't hurt that Zelda just came out.
How about two artifacts of php shells dropped via SQL injection? You can simple run strings against a memory dump and use command line tools to find items of interest.
This is the oldest form of memory forensics and is still very useful. Volatility takes that technique to another level by telling you what processes space the string appears in! This can actually be done in at least two different ways.Here's my write-up for Ali Hadi's "Web Server Case".
This is a simple case but enjoyable because you can correlate disk artifacts and memory to build the picture of attacker activity. I'll write this up as I go so that anyone could follow along (note: this is more of a walkthrough than a report).
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