Table of Contents Judaism Islam Christianity is a general term denoting the historic community deriving from the original followers of Jesus of Nazareth and the institutions, social and cultural patterns, and the beliefs and doctrines evolved by this community. In the widest sense, Christianity also refers to the forms of civilization which it created or influenced, thus many elements in modern, secular, Western civilization are still, in one way or another, called Christian Christianity. The Term The vague character of the term provides this wide range of meaning. In Christian tradition itself, however, a variety of more precise words are used to denote specific aspects of the religion; e.
The breadth of studies covered in this review article, combined with the prominence the Journal is giving to the subject in this issue, suggests how far the field has come in its understanding of the links between public health and communities.
The authors summarize many of the community-based studies since and draw useful conclusions for strengthening community-based efforts at improving the health of the US population. Moreover, by drawing from the lessons learned from human immunodeficiency virus HIV prevention programs, they provide significant recommendations for improving the potential of community-based strategies.
The term community-based has a wide range of meanings. In this editorial we focus on 4 categories of community-based projects based on implicit constructions of community employed by investigators: As setting, the community is primarily defined geographically and is the location in which interventions are implemented.
Such interventions may be citywide, using mass media or other approaches, or may take place within community institutions, such as neighborhoods, schools, churches, work sites, voluntary agencies, or other organizations.
Various levels of intervention may be employed, including educational or other strategies that involve individuals, families, social networks, organizations, and public policy. These community-based interventions may also engage community input through advisory committees or community coalitions that assist in tailoring interventions to specific target groups or to adapt programs to community characteristics.
As a result, the target of change may be populations, but population change is defined as the aggregate of individual changes.
The term community-based may also have a very different meaning, that of the community serving as the target of change. The community as target refers to the goal of creating healthy community environments through broad systemic changes in public policy and community-wide institutions and services.
In this model, health status characteristics of the community are the targets of interventions, and community changes, particularly changes thought to be related to health, are the desired outcomes.
Several significant public health initiatives have adopted this model. For example, community indicators projects use data as a catalytic tool to go beyond using individual behaviors as primary outcomes.
This model is commonly applied in community-based health promotion because of the widely endorsed belief that a high degree of community ownership and participation is essential for sustained success in population-level health outcomes.
Whether a categorical health issue is predetermined or whether the community selects, perhaps within certain parameters, its own priorities, these kinds of interventions involve external resources and some degree of actors external to the community that aim to achieve health outcomes by working through a wide array of community institutions and resources.
Although closely linked to the model just described, the emphasis in this model is on respecting and reinforcing the natural adaptive, supportive, and developmental capacities of communities.
In the language of Guy Steuart, 8 communities provide resources for meeting our day-to-day needs. These resources are provided through community institutions including families, informal social networks, neighborhoods, schools, the workplace, businesses, voluntary agencies, and political structures.
These naturally occurring units of solution meet the needs of many, if not most, community members without the benefit of direct professional intervention. However, communities are defined as much by whom they exclude as whom they include, and the network of relationships that defines communities may be under stress.
The goal of community-based programs in this model is to carefully work with these naturally occurring units of solution as our units of practice, or where and how we choose to intervene. This necessitates a careful assessment of community structures and processes, in advance, of any intervention.
Thus the aim is to strengthen these units of solution to better meet the needs of community members. This approach may include strengthening community through neighborhood organizations and network linkages, including informal social networks, ties between individuals and the organizations that serve them, and connections among community organizations to strengthen their ability to collaborate.
The model also necessitates addressing issues of common concern for the community, many or most of which are not directly health issues. In other words, this model necessitates starting where people are.
When they are presented as pure types, it is understood that no one model is used exclusively with the practice of community-based health promotion.
Although community as setting is obviously limited in its vision, community as agent can be regarded as romanticized, especially in light of the severe structural economic, social, and political deficits plaguing some communities.
The latter 3 models—community as target, community as resource, and community as agent—suggest that appropriate outcomes may not just be changes in individual behaviors but may also include changes in community capacity.
This suggests a broader context within which community programs take place. It is neither the state nor the market.
It is not a collection of individuals pursuing their own interests, but rather collectivities pursuing common interests.Contribution Analysis. Explain what is meant by “contribution analysis”. Carefully define the term and provide examples to illustrate it.
GUIDANCE: For this discussion review chapter 6. To provide some clarity, consider: (1) a personal example, this may be similar to one that you chose for week 2, if .
A definition of theory: research guidelines for different theory-building research methods in operations management Theories carefully outline the precise definitions in a specific domain to explain why and how the relationships are logically tied so that the theory gives specific predictions.
These systematic similarities provide. In a meta-analysis of 26 studies that examined patients' compliance with prescribed medications, many of them are not prepared with the skills to provide health education properly.
In diabetes education, care providers representing a variety of disciplines describe themselves as educators. The most carefully designed care plan or.
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|Origin of the term||Explain what is meant by contribution analysis.|
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Carefully define the term and provide examples to illustrate it. A contribution analysis is a type of cost-benefit analysis that compares incremental costs to incremental revenues. Incremental costs are “the costs that are consequential to a decision made, while incremental revenues are the revenues that are consequential to the decision made” (Douglas, , p%(7).
Explain what is meant by "contribution analysis". Carefully define the term and provide examples to illustrate it. Q: Write a page . The term community-based may also have a very Examples of major public health initiatives that have applied this model include “healthy cities” initiatives within several states,5 the National Healthy Start The goal of community-based programs in this model is to carefully work with these naturally occurring units of solution as our.