Buddhism in India The Edicts of King Asoka King Asoka, the third monarch of the Indian Mauryan dynasty, has come to be regarded as one of the most exemplary rulers in world history. The British historian H. Then in the nineteenth century there came to light a large number of edicts, in India, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan. These edicts, inscribed on rocks and pillars, proclaim Asoka's reforms and policies and promulgate his advice to his subjects.
Then,… General considerations It is difficult to establish a common denominator for all of the artistic expressions of the Islamic peoples. Such a common denominator would have to be meaningful for miniature painting and historiography, for a musical mode and the form of a poem.
The relationship between the art of the Islamic peoples and its religious basis is anything but direct. Like most prophetic religions, Islam is not conducive to fine arts. Thus, the centre of the Islamic artistic tradition lies in calligraphya distinguishing feature of this culturein which the word as the medium of divine revelation plays such an important role.
After the 13th century a highly refined art of miniature developed, primarily in the non-Arab countries; it dwells, however, only rarely upon religious subjects. The typical expression of Muslim art is the arabesqueboth in its geometric and in its organic form—one leaf, one flower growing out of the other, without beginning and end and capable of almost innumerable variations, only gradually detected by the eye, which never lose their charm.
An aversion to empty spaces distinguishes that art; neither the tile-covered walls of a mosque nor the rich imagery of a poem allows an unembellished area, and the decoration of a carpet can be extended almost without limit.
A system of double intersecting arabesque bands covers the field. Harry Payne Bingham, ; photograph, Otto E.
The centre of Islamic religion is the clean place for prayer, enlarged into the mosquewhich comprises the community and all its needs.
The essential structure is similar throughout the Muslim world. There are, of course, period and regional differences—large, wide court mosques of early times; the court mosques with big halls of Iran and adjacent countries; central buildings with the wonderfully shaped domes of the Ottoman Empire.
The implementshowever, are the same: If any decoration was needed, it was the words of God, beautifully written or carved in the walls or around the domes.
At first connected with the mosques and later independent of them are schools, mausoleums, rooms for the students, and cells for the religious masters. Worshipper in front of the mihrab in the Blue Mosque, Cairo. The minbar is to the right of the mihrab. Mathias Oppersdorff The poetry of the Arabs consisted in the beginning of praise and satirical poems thought to be full of magical qualities.
The strict rules of the outward form of the poems monorhyme, complicated metre even in pre-Islamic times led to a certain formalism and encouraged imitation.
For many pious Muslims, poetry was something suspect, opposed to the divine law, especially since it sang mostly of forbidden wine and of free love.
The combination of music and poetry, as practiced in court circles and among the mystics, has always aroused the wrath of the lawyer divines who wield so much authority in Islamic communities. This opposition may partly explain why Islamic poetry and fine arts took refuge in a kind of unreal world, using fixed images that could be correctly interpreted only by those who were knowledgeable in the art.
The ambiguity of Persian poetry, which oscillates between the worldly, the divine, and often the political level, is typical of Islamic writings. Especially in Iran and the countries under its cultural influence, this kind of poetry formed the most important part of literature.
Epic poetry of all kinds developed exclusively outside the Arabic-speaking countries; Western readers look in vain for an epical structure in such long poems as in the case of the prose-romances of the Arabs and find instead a rather aimless representation of facts and fictions.
A similar characteristic even conditions innumerable historical works in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, which, especially in classical times, contain much valuable information, put together without being shaped into a real work of art; only rarely does the historian or philosopher reach a comprehensive view.
The accumulation of large amounts of material, which is carefully organized up to the present, seems typical of all branches of Islamic scholarship, from theology to natural sciences. There are many minute observations and descriptions but rarely a full view of the whole process.
Later, especially in the Persian, Turkish, and Indo-Muslim areas, a tendency to overstress the decorative elements of prose is evident, and the contents even of official chronicles are hidden behind a network of rhymed prose, which is often difficult to disentangle.
This tendency is illustrated in all branches of Islamic art: Instead, there is a kind of carpetlike pattern; the Arabic and Persian poem is, in general, judged not as a closed unity but rather according to the perfection of its individual verses.
Its main object is not to convey a deep personal feeling but to perfect to the utmost the traditional rules and inherited metaphorsto which a new image may sometimes be added.Name _____ Due Date: _____ Chapter 10 Reading Guide A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe The postclassical period in Western Europe, known as the Middle Ages, stretches between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century%(2).
A NEW CIVILIZATION EMERGES IN WESTERN EUROPE. MIDDLE AGES: The postclassical period in Western Europe, known as the Middle Ages, stretches between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century. Civilization spread gradually beyond the Mediterranean zone. A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe Chapter 10 The Middle Ages • Postclassical period in western Europe known as the Middle Ages, stretches between the fall of the Roman Empire ( CE) to the midth c.
• Christian missionaries converted Europeans from polytheistic faiths to monotheistic ones (mainly Christianity) – Cultural Diffusion • New tools and crops expanded.
The Edicts of King Asoka. King Asoka, the third monarch of the Indian Mauryan dynasty, has come to be regarded as one of the most exemplary rulers in world history. PREFACE. This rendering of King Asoka's Edicts is based heavily on Amulyachandra Sen's English translation, which includes the original Magadhi and a Sanskrit and English translation of the text.
Chapter 15 A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe OUTLINE I. Introduction The postclassical period in the West is referred to as the Middle Ages.