What is the human genome project essay

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What is the human genome project essay

Trevor Dale Copyright The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort that has the goal of analyzing the sequence of human DNA and determining the location of all human genes.

Begun inthe U. Human Genome project was originally planned to last 15 years but now is projected to be complete in 13 years.

This project was started to find the 80, -human genes and to determine the sequence of the 3 - billion chemical bases that make up human DNA. The information generated by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical fields, including those such as developmental biology and neurobiology, where scientists are just beginning to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms.

The human genome project is expected to immensely benefit medical science. It will help us to understand and eventually treat many of the more than genetic diseases that afflict mankind, as well as the many multifunctional diseases in which genetic predisposition plays an important role.

New technologies emanating from the genome project will also find application in other fields such as agriculture and the environmental sciences. The human genome consists of 50, togenes located on 23 pairs of chromosomes.

What is the human genome project essay

One chromosome in each pair is inherited from the mother, and the other from the father. Each chromosome contains a long molecule of DNA, the molecule of which genes are made.

The order of the four bases on the DNA strand determines the information content of a particular gene or piece of DNA. Mapping is the process of determining the position and spacing of genes, or other genetic landmarks, on the chromosomes relative to one another.

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The possibility of initiating such a major and significant research program was extensively discussed in the scientific community during and In earlyfurther discussion culminated in the publication of two additional, widely circulated, influential reports.

Congress Office of Technology Assessment OTA report presented a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the scientific developments that had led to the promise of "mapping and sequencing" the human genome and presented an outline for a multi-phase research plan for accomplishing the goal of sequencing human DNA over the course of the following two decades.

In fiscal yearthe Congress of the United States launched the human genome project by appropriating funds to both the DOE and the National Institutes of Health NIH specifically for support of research efforts to determine the structure of complex genomes.

It is generally agreed that the overall goal of the Human Genome Initiative is to acquire fundamental information needed to further our basic scientific understanding of human genetics and of the role of various genes in health and disease.

As refined through the discussions over the last half of the 's and defined in the NRC report, the Human Genome Initiative has several interrelated goals: Construction of a high-resolution genetic map of the human genome; Production of a variety of physical maps of all human chromosomes and DNA of selected model organisms, with emphasis on maps that make the DNA accessible to investigators for further analysis; Determination of the complete sequence of human DNA and of the DNA of selected model organisms; Development of capabilities for collecting, storing, distributing, and analyzing the data produced; Creation of appropriate technologies necessary to achieve these objectives.

Because of the size of the human genome, the NRC committee and others recommended a multi-phase program. A general plan to eventually produce a human genome map over a five year period was approved by the NRC.

The initial pilot phase would consist of the following: Expansion of the human genetic map to a resolution of one centimorgan; Construction of complete physical maps of the DNA of certain model organisms and beginning the construction of physical maps of human chromosomes; Development of new technology to increase the efficiency and accuracy, and lower the cost, of physical mapping and of DNA sequencing.

It was decided upon that the task of sequencing the complete human DNA would be taken up at a later date or phase. And this would only be completed if it could be done at a reasonable cost.

What is the human genome project essay

The overall program was expected to take at least fifteen years to complete. This general plan is still appropriate, but some of the details changed as improvements in the technology occurred.

The international consortium currently includes three U. In the initial or pilot phase, eight scientific teams supported by NHGRI, DOE and international collaborators completed the sequence of over million bases, of which million or close to 10 percent of the human genome are in high-quality finished form.

The pilot project also drove down the cost of sequencing to an average of 20 - 30 cents per base today.In , Human Genome Project completed and the finish sequence covers 99% of human genome and is accurate to %.

In , analysis of human genome sequence is refined. The analysis reduced the estimate number of genes from to only to ´╗┐The Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project was established to identify the genes that make us who we are.

It is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analysing the structure and to identify all the approximate 20,, genes of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated , human genes.

The main reason the Human Genome Project continued is to help create medical discoveries which will in turn help people tackle diseases in a more preventive manner and .

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The Human Genome Project (HGP) was one of the great feats of exploration in history - an inward voyage of discovery rather than an outward exploration of the planet or the cosmos; an international research effort to sequence and map all of the genes - together known as the genome - .

The Human Genome Project has been marked by criticism since the projects initiation in the late 's. The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international, combined research program, which sought to completely map and understand the human genome and to identify all genes present in it.4/4(1).

- Human Genome Project Essay The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort that has the goal of analyzing the sequence of human DNA and determining the location of all human genes. Begun in , the U.S.

Human Genome project was originally planned to last 15 years but now is projected to be complete in 13 years.

The Human Genome Project - Research Paper